Since The Wallace Foundation emerged as a national philanthropy around 1990, it has worked in areas ranging from support of outstanding writers to improvement of teacher quality. Many of these past initiatives have yielded research and publications of continuing interest.

 

 Teacher Recruitment (Pathways to Teaching Careers)

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 1989-2001

The issue

A shortfall of up to two million teachers was projected in the early 1990s as student enrollments were expected to climb substantially and policymakers pressed for smaller class sizes. Urban schools were suffering acute shortages because of retirements, high turnover rates and teachers' reluctance to take or keep jobs in those settings.

The response

From 1989 to 1999, The Wallace Foundation invested $50 million to create Pathways to Teaching Careers. The program's goal was to respond to shortages in high-need areas by providing new ways to certify and recruit teachers from nontraditional pools such as paraprofessionals, uncertified teachers and returned Peace Corps volunteers. A six-year evaluation of the program that concluded in 2001 produced several publications offering evidence of its effectiveness and lessons on how to duplicate the model.

The strategies

The Pathways programs worked with 40 colleges and universities in 23 states to build effective strategies for recruiting, preparing and certifying teachers from nontraditional candidate pools. Grants supplied scholarships and support services to enable potential teachers to complete bachelor's or master's degrees, teaching certificates and other requirements leading to full-time teaching jobs. Partnerships between the universities and local school districts ensured that the new teachers were being prepared for assignments the schools really needed. In turn, the districts agreed to help place the graduates in high-need schools.

The accomplishments

Pathways became a nationally recognized model for creating effective alternative routes into the teaching profession:

Through 2000, Pathways recruited and served nearly 2,600 participants (exceeding its goal by 18 percent), and the model was institutionalized at 32 participating universities.
Research published in 2001 by the Urban Institute found that 75 percent of Pathways participants completed teacher certification requirements, compared with 60 percent of traditionally educated students. Pathways teachers also rated higher in classroom performance than typical novice teachers, according to the research.
Eighty-four percent of Pathways graduates worked in teaching jobs in targeted, high-need districts, and more than 81 percent remained in teaching for at least three years.
In 1998, Congress and the U.S. Department of Education used Pathways as a model for teacher-recruitment legislation contained in the Higher Education Act, which was reauthorized that year. Federal funds became available for Pathways-type programs.
Through a Wallace grant to the Education Commission of the States (ECS), eight states considered legislation that would provide additional funding for Pathways-type programs. ECS expected to work with another 14 states interested in similar programs.

Publications

Recruiting, Preparing and Retaining Teachers for America's Schools, (1997) examines scholarships and other supports offered by 42 colleges and universities to help educate nontraditional candidates for careers in teaching.
Ahead of the Class: A Handbook for Preparing New Teachers from New Sources (2001) is a how-to based on the Pathways effort, offering guidance to school districts and universities in cooperating to find, train and place nontraditional educators.
Absence Unexcused: Ending Teacher Shortages in High Need Areas (2002) offers data on the successes of the Pathways model in preparing teachers from nontraditional pools for jobs in high-need districts.

 Ensuring Teacher Quality

Past Investment: 1989-2001

The issue

The quality of teacher preparation is crucial to helping students reach high academic standards, but in the late 1980s there was concern that many teachers were entering the profession unprepared, having received poor-quality training. Indeed, some teachers, working without a regular teaching license, may never have received training at all. Others may have been unsuited to the profession, yet were permitted to teach because of lax licensing and certification standards.

The response

From 1989 to 2001, The Wallace Foundation provided some $50 million to support a wide range of projects aimed at improving the quality and preparation of teachers in the United States, especially in high-need districts. Wallace's response was based on several premises:

Improving teaching practice requires knowledge of subject matter content, child development, methods of assessing student progress and pedagogy;
The highly decentralized character of K-12 education and teacher preparation demands that a wide variety of professional learning opportunities be made available to teachers and schools;
If teaching is to improve, professional learning opportunities need to be more consistent, in-depth and coherent.

The goal of The Wallace Foundation's support was to improve teaching practices so that students learned the problem-solving, critical analysis and higher-order thinking skills needed for success in the 21st century.

The strategies

Wallace supported more than 40 projects, including school restructuring and improvement networks (such as Theodore Sizer's Coalition of Essential Schools, James Comer's School Development Program and John Goodlad's Institute for Educational Inquiry); school-university partnerships; three major evaluations; and a substantial body of research involving hundreds of scholars and teacher educators and thousands of teachers.

Wallace also provided major support to strengthen accreditation standards for teacher preparation programs and standards for licensing and certification through:

The National Board for Professional Teacher Standards, Southfield, Mich.: to increase the number of teachers working in low-income communities who seek and achieve National Board Certification.
The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, New York City: to help 12 states reform their systems of teacher preparation, licensing and certification.
The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, Washington, D.C.: to revise a system for accrediting professional development in public school settings, where prospective teachers around the country were receiving practical training.

In addition, The Wallace Foundation awarded a four-year $2.5 million grant to the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute to support the planning and implementation of Teachers Institutes in three cities committed to the development of exemplary teacher education programs.

The accomplishments

The work helped lead the field toward reforms to benefit students in low-income communities:

Teachers working in low-income districts increased their participation in the National Board Certification;
Several states made significant progress toward reforming teacher education, accreditation and certification to ensure teacher competency and qualification; and
Standards were established for schools where teaching candidates get practical experience.

 School Counseling

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 1998-2004

The issue

The field of school counseling sat largely on the sidelines in the 1990s as educators worked to boost the academic achievement of all students. The preparation most counselors were receiving emphasized the social and personal needs of young people rather than their academic or career goals. Yet studies by leading experts argued for training to better equip future counselors to support all students' academic and career development.

The response

In 1998, The Wallace Foundation, along with The Education Trust of Washington, D.C., launched Transforming School Counseling, a national initiative to improve the professional preparation of school counselors and increase their capacity to provide appropriate academic and career development counseling to middle and high school students, especially those in low-achieving schools. The Trust promoted high academic achievement for all students, focusing on schools and colleges serving Latino, African-American and Native-American students.

The strategies

Six universities received three-year, $450,000 grants to make changes in graduate-level training programs, recruit more diverse candidates and work with local school districts to redesign their programs. In addition, The Education Trust received an $875,000 grant to work with the universities as they implemented changes to their counselor education programs. A five-year evaluation provided much-needed documentation on how universities and partner school districts could better prepare and employ counselors.

The accomplishments

Forty colleges and universities expressed interest in working with The Education Trust to transform their counselor preparation programs.

Publications

Transforming School Counseling (2001) provides an analysis of the initial activities of the project.
New Rules, New Roles: Preparing All Young People for a Changing World (2000) focuses on six successful programs supported by Wallace.
Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal’s Guide (2006) commissioned by Wallace and published by Corwin Press, argues that counselors can take a bigger role in developing students’ study habits and that university training for prospective counselors should be revised.

 PACK Program

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

The issue

At the same time that schools were struggling to meet higher expectations for academic achievement, research was suggesting possible payoffs for students when parents and community institutions became more engaged in supporting learning. It was possible, therefore, that community institutions could advance education by seeking more effective ways to collaborate with families and create a more supportive climate for learning.

The response

Parents and Communities for Kids (PACK) was a Wallace Foundation initiative whose focus was on improving learning outcomes for children ages 6 to 10—the years when basic literacy skills are established—through activities outside traditional school. PACK emerged from the lessons learned from the foundation's long-standing support of family literacy, urban parks, libraries, museums, youth development and afterschool programs.

The strategies

Using a combination of program, research and communications activities, Wallace worked in four communities—New Haven, St. Paul, Detroit and Boston—to improve out-of-school learning opportunities and supports for children. Specifically, PACK supported strategies to:

Improve the supply of high-quality out-of-school learning opportunities for children and families;
Increase the demand for and participation in such opportunities; and
Use this participation to help children learn and prepare for successful adulthood.

The accomplishments

In December 2001, sponsoring organizations in four cities were awarded implementation grants of $1.5 million over four years to participate in PACK. Each organization designed specific programs to improve learning outcomes for children ages 6 to 10. Highlights of plans by sponsoring organizations in the PACK communities included:

New Haven - The Community Foundation for Greater New Haven collaborated with the Graustein Memorial Fund to create strategies for community organizations that promote lifelong learning activities in the home and community. A consortium including the Ansonia Nature and Recreation Center, the Connecticut Children's Museum, the New Haven Free Public Library and Young Audiences of Connecticut received mini-grants to test new family learning activities.
Detroit - The Community Foundation for Southeastern Michigan launched "The Great Outdoors," an initiative to mobilize parents, children and community organizations to use the outdoors to improve health, learning and the general well-being of young people in southeastern Michigan. The Community Foundation made grants to community organizations, schools and other entities that tested strategies for improving family engagement in outdoor learning activities.
St. Paul - The Humphrey Institute's Center for Democracy and Citizenship at the University of Minnesota implemented a multi-year community-building effort in the West Side neighborhood of St. Paul, home to a dense concentration of Latino and Hmong families. Through PACK, local organizations and leaders worked to expand learning opportunities for children and families at home and in the community through afterschool programs, neighborhood celebrations, leadership development, youth engagement, social marketing and other activities.
Boston - The United Way of Massachusetts Bay launched "Engaging Families," a partnership with the Black Ministerial Alliance and the Latino After-School Initiative to promote parent involvement in afterschool programs and in home-based learning activities. Through Engaging Families, community-based afterschool programs in these two networks were given grants, technical assistance and other tools to engage and assist parents in supporting their children's learning. "Engaging Families" was part of the "Keeping Kids on Track" initiative, a broader effort by United Way to ensure that young people graduated from high school prepared to lead successful lives.

 Making the Most of Out-of-School Time (MOST)

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 1993-1999

The issue

The number of children needing high-quality, affordable before- and after-school programs rose dramatically at the end of the twentieth century as changes in welfare laws required more parents to work full time. But there was a shortage of such programs, especially in neighborhoods needing them most. Even where the programs existed, barriers such as cost or lack of transportation placed them out of reach for many families.

The response

Between 1993 and 1999, The Wallace Foundation's Making the Most of Out-of-School Time (MOST) initiative worked with community-based partners in Boston, Chicago and Seattle to increase the supply, accessibility, affordability and quality of afterschool programs and to promote greater national awareness of the need for such programs. The foundation invested $10.4 million and attracted more than $3 million in matching funds to support those efforts.

The strategies

With an initial grant in 1993, Wellesley College's National Institute on Out-of-School Time managed the MOST initiative and provided training and technical assistance to MOST sites. Wallace supported the National School-Age Child Care Alliance to develop national standards for high-quality care and to create an assessment tool for improving school-age care programs. In June 1999, Wallace held a public briefing in Washington, D.C., to raise awareness of the need for high-quality afterschool programs. The Foundation also commissioned a two-phase evaluation study of MOST to capture lessons on how to increase the supply and quality of afterschool programs.

The accomplishments

More than 6,000 children got access to affordable programs in target cities. Providers received training to improve their quality. The MOST initiative produced concrete evidence about the need for concerted efforts by families, community organizations, the school system, businesses and political and cultural institutions in order to provide more and better programs.

Publications

MOST Executive Summary: Interim Findings from an Evaluation Conducted by Chapin Hall for Children at the University of Chicago (1998) shares lessons learned in Boston, Chicago and Seattle, which can help guide other communities in providing good, affordable and accessible programs to underserved families.
Working Together for Children and Families: A Community Guide to Making the Most of Out-of-School Time (2001) offers advice on the critical steps of planning, researching, funding and building support for afterschool programs.

 Extended-Service Schools

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 1997-2002

The issue

The majority of children's waking hours (including weekends and vacations) are spent outside of school. Research shows that constructive use of this time can contribute positively to young people's educational, social, emotional and physical development. Yet, there is a critical shortage of safe places, especially in high-need communities, that offer engaging, meaningful activity before and after school and during the summer months.

The response

From 1997 to 2002, The Wallace Foundation supported partnerships aimed at transforming public schools in low-income communities into responsive Extended-Service Schools. Remaining open from morning to night, on weekends and over the summer, these exemplary programs offered young people educational programs and a range of social services.

The strategies

With technical assistance offered by a partner organization, school-based programs provided young people and their families with much-needed educational enrichment and recreational opportunities. Grants allowed communities to locally adapt one of these nationally recognized extended-service school models:

Beacon Schools, New York City (with The Fund for the City of New York): operated by a community-based organization at a public school site;
Bridges to Success, United Way of Central Indiana (with United Way of America and the Institute of Educational Leadership): administered by the United Way and several community-based organizations;
Community Schools, Children's Aid Society of New York City (with Children's Aid Society and Fordham University): run by a community-based school and a university;
West Philadelphia Improvement Corps, University of Pennsylvania: administered by a university.

The accomplishments

Wallace's Extended-Service Schools initiative awarded $19.6 million to help transform 57 underused school facilities in 20 low-income communities. A final report looked at the effort’s impact on youth and families, program costs, and practices linked to high-quality programming. It found, among other things, that participation in the program was associated with positive school behaviors and attitudes, as well as behaviors (such as appropriately dealing with anger) that could help youth stay out of trouble.

Publications

Getting Started with Extended-Service Schools: Early Lessons from the Field, (2000) provides practical advice to local programs applying for the U.S. Department of Education's 21st Century Community Learning Centers funding, a federal program to help districts establish afterschool programs for academic enrichment.
Multiple Choices After School: Findings from the Extended-Services Schools Initiative, (2002) This analysis of 60 Wallace-supported Extended-Service Schools offers findings from the initiative and argues that no single approach meets all youngsters’ needs.

 YouthALIVE!

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 1991-2000

The issue

Museums and science centers have the potential to provide exciting and memorable working and learning opportunities for adolescents. An opportunity existed for such institutions to increase their ties to communities and provide benefits to youth if the feasibility and sustainability of such programming could be demonstrated.

The response

In 1991, The Wallace Foundation launched YouthALIVE! (Youth Achievement through Learning, Involvement, Volunteering and Employment) to help establish and support programs in science and children's museums that provided positive, hands-on work and learning opportunities for young people ages 10 to 17. The initiative targeted facilities that had significant resources and programming experience or that were developing successful, comprehensive programs for youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds.

The strategies

Through 1999, the Foundation awarded 132 YouthALIVE! grants totaling nearly $14 million to science centers, technology centers, children's museums, zoos, aquariums, planetariums and botanical gardens to support and develop youth programs. Programs offered a variety of experiences, including summer camps, afterschool programs, and a range of work opportunities, including teaching young people to serve as docents.

The accomplishments

An evaluation of YouthALIVE! by COSMOS Corporation in 2000 concluded that:

Participation had a significant positive impact on youth outcomes such as school attendance, demonstration of technical skills and career aspirations;
About 75 percent of participating institutions indicated they were likely to be able to continue youth programming beyond the life of the grants. The institutions reported a variety of benefits, including increased cultural sensitivity among staff members, an expanded base of potential fundraising sponsors and increased integration of the institution with the local community.

 Museum Collections Accessibility Initiative

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 1991-1999

The issue

Like their counterparts in the performing arts, museums often struggle to attract and sustain broad, diverse audiences. At the same time, they want to make the best use of their outstanding permanent collections. In their search for ways to offer a more meaningful experience for traditional and new audiences, they see a need to change business practices.

The response

From 1991 to 1999, The Wallace Foundation conducted the Museum Collections Accessibility Initiative to help museums find ways to attract and serve a diverse mix of visitors through a range of innovative programs tied to their permanent collections.

The strategies

The Wallace Foundation granted $32 million to 29 art museums to help them create stronger links to their communities. With innovative programs affecting everyone from the board of directors to the security staff members, participating museums:

Developed partnerships with community organizations and local artists;
Redesigned exhibits and developed new ways for visitors to connect with the permanent collection;
Implemented ways to market themselves more effectively; and
Designed educational programs that invited the public to become more fully involved in the museums.

The accomplishments

Museums reported increases in audience without compromise to artistic quality, as well as a change in the practices of staff members who took ownership of their institution's new mission and visitor-centered culture.

Publications

Opening the Door to the Entire Community: How Museums are Using Permanent Collections to Engage Audiences (1998) finds that the museum efforts were aided by careful research and informed planning.
Engaging the Entire Community: A New Role for Permanent Collections (1991) profiles creative ways four museums augmented their permanent collections with efforts to bring in more people, using strategies including establishing teen councils and business partnerships.
Service to People: Challenges and Rewards. How Museums Can Become More Visitor-Centered (2001) describes how museums can attract large numbers of visitors without compromising quality, taking steps such as upgrading admission services and training staff members to be more approachable.

 Adult Literacy

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program...

Past Investment: 1992-2002

The issue

Millions of American adults read at or below the fifth-grade level, making it difficult for them to perform such everyday tasks as reading a newspaper, writing and addressing a letter or completing a job application. Low literacy skills have a significant impact on adults' ability to be productive as citizens, parents or workers.

The response

In 1992, The Wallace Foundation began a national initiative to improve the quality and effectiveness of adult literary services, especially in public libraries, and to improve access to services for the millions of adults not currently enrolled in programs.

The strategies

Wallace invested nearly $18 million in a variety of complementary strategies addressing three core needs: improving the quality of services in existing literacy programs; improving program accountability to better demonstrate learner outcomes; and improving access for the millions of adults not currently enrolled in adult literacy programs.

The accomplishments

The Adult Literacy initiatives reached 50,000 adult learners.

  • More than 20 public libraries in eight states established high-quality literacy programs by investing in technology, recruiting and training tutors and developing strategies to retain adult learners.
  • Literacy Partners, Inc., a consortium of 12 leading literacy programs, formed the "What Works Literacy Partnership" to improve program quality through evaluation and assessment and improve program practice to produce stronger learning gains for students.
  • With the Ford Foundation, Wallace supported the Adult Literacy Media Alliance (ALMA) to develop TV411, a televised learning service for adults and their families.

Publications

A series of evaluations by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (later known as MDRC) offers practical lessons for improving the persistence of adult learners in library-based literacy programs:

So I Made Up My Mind: Introducing a Study of Adult Learner Persistence in Library Literacy Programs (2000), the first in the series, says that offering child care and curricula designed specifically for adults could be ways for libraries to boost “learner persistence” in adult literacy programs.
I Did It for Myself: Studying Efforts to Increase Adult Student Persistence in Library Literacy Programs (2001) identifies program features, teaching methods and other factors important to making adult literacy programs work.
As Long As It Takes: Responding to the Challenges of Adult Student Persistence in Library Literacy Programs (2003) explores promising approaches and chronic challenges that five libraries discovered in adult literacy programs they offered.
One Day I Will Make It: A Study of Adult Student Persistence in Library Literacy (2005), the last in the series, says that library adult literacy programs could be strengthened if they addressed the barriers that keep the enrollees from persistent attendance, such as lack of transportation and child care.

 Libraries

LIBRARY POWER WALLACE INITIATIVE, 1988  2000

The Issue

School libraries were not being used to their full potential in elementary and middle schools.

The Response

The Library Power initiative sought to convert large numbers of school libraries into state-of-the-art centers to help improve teaching and learning in public schools. Schools made renovations to libraries, strengthened their collections and aligned them more closely with classroom needs; enriched classroom teaching with library activities; and fostered collaboration among administrators, teachers and librarians in planning and giving instruction.

The Results

With grants totaling more than $40 million, the largest private investment in school libraries in more than 30 years, the initiative helped more than 700 schools in 19 communities transform their libraries into hubs of meaningful educational activities. Library Power became the model on which the American Library Association based its standards for school libraries.

Research That Emerged From This Work

Library Power Executive Summary: Findings from the National Evaluation of the National Library Power Program

PUBLIC LIBRARIES AS PARTNERS IN YOUTH DEVELOPMENT – WALLACE INITIATIVE, 1998 – 2001

The Issue

Libraries could be better tapped to contribute to the positive development of children and teens.

The Response

Public Libraries as Partners in Youth Development awarded $9 million to nine leading public libraries and the Urban Libraries Council. The grants helped libraries devise innovative ways to serve children and teens, while furthering the library mission. The libraries introduced and expanded such activities for low-income teens as technology training, homework help, mentoring, volunteer work and jobs.

The Results

The initiative led to improved library education and career development services for teenagers.

Research That Emerged From This Work

 Library Power

WALLACE INITIATIVE, 1988 – 2000

The Issue

School libraries were not being used to their full potential in elementary and middle schools.

The Response

The Library Power initiative sought to convert large numbers of school libraries into state-of-the-art centers to help improve teaching and learning in public schools. Schools made renovations to libraries, strengthened their collections and aligned them more closely with classroom needs; enriched classroom teaching with library activities; and fostered collaboration among administrators, teachers and librarians in planning and giving instruction.

The Results

With grants totaling more than $40 million, the largest private investment in school libraries in more than 30 years, the initiative helped more than 700 schools in 19 communities transform their libraries into hubs of meaningful educational activities. Library Power became the model on which the American Library Association based its standards for school libraries.

Research That Emerged From This Work

Library Power Executive Summary: Findings from the National Evaluation of the National Library Power Program

 Public Libraries as Partners in Youth Development (PLPYD)

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 1998-2002

The issue

Communities have a tremendous resource in public libraries, but many libraries have not realized their potential to be partners in serving the needs of youth. Libraries needed more information and ideas about effective strategies to involve young people more actively in their services and to contribute to the positive development of youth in their local communities.

The response

In 1998, The Wallace Foundation launched Public Libraries as Partners in Youth Development (PLPYD). Grants totaling $9.2 million were awarded to nine leading public libraries and the Urban Libraries Council. PLPYD encouraged libraries to make their institutions more responsive to youth needs and create innovative services that furthered both the libraries’ missions and youth development.

The strategies

Each of the nine public libraries developed and expanded informal learning and career development opportunities for low-income teenagers. Strategies included technology training, homework assistance, mentoring, volunteer and job opportunities and career development services. The Urban Libraries Council coordinated the initiative and provided technical assistance, communications and conference activities. The Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago conducted a four-year study of PLPYD libraries.

The accomplishments

PLPYD improved library-based educational and career development services for youth and fostered partnerships that strengthened community support available to young people. The Urban Libraries Council expanded the reach of PLPYD through partnerships with the American Library Association, the National League of Cities and the Forum for Youth Investment. Articles in professional journals helped build an audience of policymakers and practitioners for the lessons of PLPYD.

Publications

Public Libraries as Partners in Youth Development (1999) uses findings from a national survey of 1,500 public libraries to examine how public libraries can change to meet the needs of young people and offers examples of successes.
New on the Shelf: Teens in the Library (2004) summarizes what the initiative revealed about the potential benefits as well as the challenges of public libraries offering work and attractive activities to teenagers.

 Urban Parks

WALLACE INITIATIVE, 1990 – 2003

The Issue

As places to play and learn and as public spaces where people come together, parks are essential to the health of urban communities. In many cities where parks have been left to decline, public-private partnerships have emerged to spur reinvestment in open spaces.

The Response

The Urban Parks initiative sought to improve the quantity and quality of city parks for public use, particularly in low-income neighborhoods, and to broaden urban leaders’ understanding of the importance of parks to the health and vitality of cities. Grants totaling $38.6 million supported 19 public-private partnerships in 17 cities to create parks in under-served neighborhoods, promote urban reforestation, restore landscape and bring new activities to parks. Wallace supported national and regional forums to share lessons on park development and its contribution to communities. In 2000, $3 million in final grants went to support urban park collaborations, physical improvements, and intergenerational activities, and to help establish a national organization, the City Parks Alliance, to represent urban parks and possibly provide a network for encouraging informal learning through park projects around the country.

The Results

The Urban Parks Initiative:

Secured 350 acres of new parkland and 50 miles of new greenway trails, restoring 300 acres of existing parkland and pulling together more than $150 million in public/private commitments.
Drew new visitors through innovative activities, grounded in careful study of park use.
Shared lessons of effective park development with the broader field through publications and Urban Parks Online. In 2001, The Urban Institute published Public Use of Urban Parks: A Methods Manual for Park Managers and Community Leaders.
Helped build a network of park practitioners and city mayors, the foundation-supported City Parks Forum.

Research That Emerged From This Work

 Ventures in Leadership

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 2001 - 2004

The issue

As schools and districts across the country struggled to find high-quality, well-prepared leadership capable of improving learning, a need emerged to identify and support home-grown, innovative ideas generated by local nonprofit and community organizations, and to create new learning networks through which knowledge about improving leadership could spread to others in the field.

The response

In April 2001, The Wallace Foundation created Ventures in Leadership. The program, which ended in December 2002, provided a relatively quick means of helping nonprofit organizations, colleges, public schools and districts around the country test innovative ideas and build on successful experiences for improving school and district leadership. Together, these projects encouraged grassroots thinking about leadership, expanded the kinds of organizations addressing this issue and raised public awareness about the importance of leadership to improve student learning.

The strategies

Over two years, Ventures in Leadership provided nearly 130 grants ranging from $5,000 to $50,000 to organizations in 44 states and the District of Columbia. The awards helped to advance projects that offered promising solutions to practical problems related to attracting, training and supporting principals and superintendents.

The accomplishments

Ventures in Leadership supported a wide variety of projects including professional development for leaders and leader-mentors; data management to track and improve student performance; online networking to reduce isolation among rural districts; recruitment strategies including media campaigns; and innovative leadership models.

 Education: States and Districts

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 2007-2011

The issue

To improve student learning, a number of states have established new leadership standards for principals and sought to revamp their leader training programs. Districts, too, have begun to establish programs to train aspiring principals and build the skills of current principals. But these efforts are unlikely to be effective if they are inconsistent with other state and district policies.

The response

As an antidote to this frequent fragmentation of policies, The Wallace Foundation worked with a number of states and districts to develop what it called a “cohesive leadership system” (CLS). The idea was that the key policies and practices that affect the success of school leaders—the standards that define high-quality leadership and provide a basis for holding leaders accountable; the training that prepares leaders for their role as catalysts for learning; and the range of conditions and incentives that help or hinder those leaders—are most likely to be successful and sustained if they are both well-coordinated and aligned to the goal of improved student learning at all levels of public education: state, district and school.

The strategy

In 2007, The Wallace Foundation took stock of progress in 21 states and several more districts that it had been funding and otherwise supporting and classified them into one of three categories: CLS, aligned system of leader development or leadership network. Sites in the CLS category were those making the most progress toward connecting state and district policies affecting leadership standards and training. Those in the aligned system of leader development category were making progress on creating aligned policies and initiatives focused primarily on training. Sites in the leadership network category were deemed to be making less progress on creating aligned systems. These categories dictated funding and support levels from the foundation.

The accomplishments

RAND was not able to determine conclusively whether greater policy cohesion led to more time spent on instructional leadership in the sites studied. But comparing each state's progress, researchers were able to identify the eight most successful strategies that allowed participants to build stronger working relationships and greater policy coordination. One of the most effective was selecting project leaders who possessed enough political clout to overcome resistance to change.

Researchers identified a dozen local conditions, such as the stability of district leadership, that are influential in determining where collaborative efforts are most likely to flourish. They also make recommendations on how other states and districts wanting to align their education policies can best begin, build and sustain their work.

Publications

Improving School Leadership: The Promise of Cohesive Leadership Systems (2009) is an in-depth RAND evaluation describing payoffs and challenges as states and districts set out to collaborate more closely on policies to improve school leadership.

 State Action for Education Leadership Project (SAELP)

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 2001-2007

​​​​The issue

States are central players in setting policies and creating conditions necessary for successful leadership, and for preparing future leaders to perform effectively in schools and districts. Yet, when The Wallace Foundation became involved in education leadership, very few states had a comprehensive plan for improving district and school leadership. Sometimes, state policies actually limited those efforts.

​​​​The response

In 2001, Wallace announced a three-year, $8.9 million grant to launch the State Action for Education Leadership Project (SAELP), a national consortium led by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and including the National Governors Association, the National Conference of State Legislatures, the National Association of State Boards of Education and the Education Commission of the States. Working directly with 15 selected states, SAELP led a national effort that sought to ensure that laws and policies in all 50 states strengthened the capacity of superintendents and principals to improve student learning. The SAELP states were Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Virginia.

In April 2004, the foundation announced one-year grants totaling $3.6 million to the 15 states to participate in the second phase of the state-based project. The states were eligible to renew their grants for up to two additional years for another $16 million based on results.

​​​​The strategies

The 15 SAELP states were tasked with establishing new requirements for the preparation and licensure of school leaders; providing incentives for recruitment and fellowships; and promoting creative, effective working dynamics between local leaders and governing boards. These states concentrated on six key areas of activity and knowledge building:

Assuring that states gave high priority to support leadership;
Developing state strategies to increase and diversify the pool of candidates for school and district leadership;
Modifying state policies to improve pre-service and professional development programs;
Using state policies to promote better licensing and certification processes for leaders and improving the accreditation process for higher education-based leadership training programs;
Designing and implementing strategies to improve contracting and bargaining practices, salary and compensation programs, performance review processes, and incentive programs for strong leaders; and
Devising state policies and practices to improve the political and governance settings that affect the climate for education leaders.

​​​​The accomplishments

Ten states passed legislation or regulations related to changes in certification/licensure requirements.
Massachusetts created a new program allowing the Springfield school district to certify its own principals.
New Jersey adopted new governance structures and roles that afforded superintendents and principals the ability to make more personnel decisions.
Indiana and Oregon began recruitment campaigns focused on placing minority educators into leadership positions.
Missouri introduced and passed three bills aimed at modifying administrator certification rules, fostering administrative mentoring and improving administrative effectiveness.
The Vermont House of Representatives introduced a proposal to clarify roles of school boards and administrators and to establish a school leadership academy.
Georgia launched a Leadership Institute for School Improvement.
Iowa presented a report on SAELP and education leadership to the state’s board of education to make leadership a top policy priority in 2003.
Delaware developed and implemented education leadership standards.
Virginia's State Board approved a regulation allowing for non-traditional superintendents.
Indiana, Kentucky and Virginia created study commissions on leadership through their state legislatures.
Illinois enacted a new law to require continuing professional development for administrators.

 Leadership for Educational Achievement in Districts (LEAD)

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 2002-2007

​​​​The issue

School districts are on the front lines of teaching and learning. Promoting and sustaining improvements and building internal capacity and external support require skilled leaders with a long-term commitment to the students and the communities they serve. Yet, when Wallace first became involved in the education leadership field, these complex systems were finding it difficult to hire and retain qualified superintendents and principals capable of lifting the academic performance of all children.

​​​​The response

Launched in 2002, Leadership for Educational Achievement in Districts (LEAD) provided more than $56 million to 12 high-need districts that demonstrated willingness and capacity to reform their leadership practices to improve student learning. The districts were: Fairfax County (Va.) Public Schools; Fort Wayne (Ind.) Community Schools; Providence (R.I.) School District; Springfield (Mass.) Public Schools; St. Louis (Mo.) Public Schools; Eugene (Ore.) School District; Hartford (Conn.) Board of Education; Atlanta Public Schools; Springfield (Ill.) School District; Trenton (N.J.) Public Schools; New York City Region One; and Jefferson County (Ky.) Public Schools.

Funding for each district was renewable for up to five years provided it demonstrated significant progress toward achieving its goals. The LEAD districts were tasked with identifying and implementing ways to attract and place a broader, more able pool of candidates into the principalship and superintendency; strengthening the ability of leaders to improve learning; and creating more supportive conditions for leaders to succeed.

The LEAD districts were located in states participating in Wallace's State Action for Education Leadership Project (SAELP). These states were committed to reforming their state policies so that they were more supportive of leadership and learning. The long-term goal of this coordinated state-district strategy was to develop and share policies and practices that influence states and districts that do not receive direct support from Wallace.

​​​​The strategies

LEAD districts formed a learning network to examine the effects of leadership on learning, analyze existing obstacles and explore strategic interventions that could, over time, produce new policies and practices to support better student achievement. Specifically, LEAD districts:

Worked with states to implement policies affecting leadership, from selection and certification to professional learning and governance;
Worked with school boards to define policies in such areas as recruitment, retention, evaluation, incentives and contracts;
Worked with universities to influence the training and selection of aspiring leaders, as well as with local business leaders, community-based organizations and parents;
Analyzed performance data and assessed academic programs and the quality of classroom/school practice;
Allocated human, financial and intellectual resources in line with leadership and learning goals;
Defined student learning as the district's primary priority; and
Created systems so leaders can review student performance against standards.

Wallace awarded grants to the Southern Regional Education Board and the Education Development Center (EDC) to help LEAD districts build greater capacity to define and realize specific leadership goals; evaluate progress; create new resources and tools to improve professional practice of principals, superintendents and others in leadership positions; and help form a national network enabling LEAD districts to share knowledge more effectively with each other and with many others.

LEAD superintendents attended a new management program, founded with Wallace support, at the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. This investment was intended to strengthen the LEAD network and support work to expand the impact of this method of leadership training on a larger scale.

​​​​The accomplishments

In their initial work, many participating districts chose to focus on strategies aimed at attracting a stronger, more diverse pool of candidates for the principalship; improving professional preparation with an emphasis on mentoring, coaching and internships; and strengthening the ability of school leaders to improve student learning. For example:

Springfield, Mass., became the first district in that state to get permission to create and manage its own principal certification program independent of a university.
The Eugene (Ore.) School District 4J started a principal preparation program at the University of Oregon, with faculty drawn from both the district and the university. The district recruited 28 teachers—  including 14 women and 4 minority group members—to participate.
The Fort Wayne (Ind.) Community Schools established an Exploratory Leader Academy for teachers considering a career in leadership but not yet ready to leave the classroom. Participants divided their time between teaching and participation in an administrative internship.

 Lila Wallace Readers Digest Writers Awards

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

​​​​Past Investment: 1990-2000

​​​​The issue

Ask writers what they would most like to change about their work, and many would say its solitary nature and the lack of time to pursue their craft. Many would trade some of that isolation for a chance to become actively involved in their communities, sharing their appreciation for the written word. However, these opportunities are rarely, if ever, available.

​​​​The response

From 1990 to 2000, the Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Writers' Awards program provided financial support to free accomplished writers from other responsibilities so they could devote time to creating new works and partnering with community-based organizations to foster wider appreciation for literature.

​​​​The strategies

The program awarded more than $9 million to 92 exceptional poets, playwrights, novelists and nonfiction writers. Three-year grants of $105,000 each encouraged the writers to develop new work and share their love for literature with community members and cultural organizations. Distinguished writers, editors and academics nominated writers for grants. An independent review committee selected grant winners from the pool of nominees.

The program also connected writers with communities, engaging the public in creative experiences to increase understanding and appreciation of literature. The writer chose the community organization with which he or she wanted to work, and the foundation awarded each affiliate organization $30,000 for administrative costs associated with the writer's community project.

​​​​The accomplishments

The Writers' Awards became a signature program that helped raise awareness about the value of literary outreach among the larger writing community. Writers conducted workshops, organized performances, mounted exhibits and gave readings in schools, churches, libraries, homeless shelters and hospitals. They reached teenagers and seniors, inner-city gang members and teachers as well as veterans, ranchers and others, fostering an appreciation for literature. Affiliate organizations added a new dimension to their programs through their partnerships with the writers. And given the rare chance to put their writing first for three years, many of the writers enjoyed new bursts of creativity and productivity.

Publications

The Art of the Possible (2002) celebrates the accomplishments of the Writers’ Awards’ program.

 State Arts Partnerships for Cultural Participation (START)

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

​​​​Past investment: 2001-2005

​​​​The issue

State arts agencies (SAAs) carry out a complex mission: to promote arts participation, to support artists and to demonstrate the societal value of the arts. They also have a large and diverse group of constituents, including local arts organizations, state legislatures, other state agencies and individual artists.

​​​​The response

The Wallace Foundation launched State Arts Partnerships for Cultural Participation (START) to help SAAs adopt new, more effective guidelines, programs and funding practices aimed at encouraging broader public participation in the arts.

​​​​The strategies

Wallace gave direct grants to 13 state arts agencies to support programs, research and outreach efforts on arts participation, including leadership training, pilot demonstration projects and improved technical assistance. It provided access to expertise to help SAAs and local arts organizations launch successful initiatives, as well as evaluations to assess their effectiveness and to gain new knowledge about statewide participation-building efforts.

​​​​The accomplishments

The Wallace Foundation invested about $12.5 million in the START initiative, enabling grantees to take a number of steps to broaden participation in the arts. These measures ranged from revision of mission statements so they focused more on cultural participation to training of staff members in participation-building practices. The Ohio Arts Council, for example, restructured its grants program so grant eligibility became based on public benefit rather than organization type. And the Minnesota State Arts Board established a four-year project that, among other goals, aimed to expand learning about arts participation and to share best practices. SAA managers also received guidance from Mark H. Moore, a professor at Harvard University and leading authority on public sector management, to examine what their public roles and responsibilities meant for their approaches to building cultural participation.

​​​​Publications

Wallace issued a series of reports exploring SAAs by the RAND Corporation:

State Arts Agencies 1965-2003: Whose Interests to Serve? (2004) traces the history of these organizations; describes how some innovative Wallace-supported SAAs are working to broaden audiences, build legislative support and measure their own progress; and offers suggestions on how they can arrive at more robust missions to help strengthen their public and political support.
The Arts and State Governments: At Arm's Length or Arm in Arm? (2006) suggests that state arts agency strategies that reach out to the public and to government officials can be effective in placing the arts higher on the list of governmental priorities.
Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy (2008) argues that reversing declining participation in the arts will require more and better arts education, because those who experience the arts as children are more likely to pursue the arts as adults.
State Arts Policy: Trends and Future Prospects (2008) looks at the evolving role of state arts agencies, from mainly funders of cultural organizations to promoters of more public participation in the arts.

Other START-related publications are:

Creating Public Value Through State Arts Agencies: (2005) offers state arts agency managers practical guidance on such matters as how to cultivate support of policymakers and how to determine realistic goals.
State Arts Agencies at a Crossroads: The Search for Public Benefit: (2004) offers a Wallace-authored brief on how state arts agencies are developing innovative ways to refocus their efforts from supporting arts providers through grant-giving to giving greater consideration to the larger public benefits of their work.
From START to Finish: Lessons from The Wallace Foundation’s Work with State Arts Agencies (2010) offers Wallace’s reflections on its five-year initiative to help 13 state arts funding agencies work more effectively on making the arts a bigger part of people’s lives.

 LEAP Program

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

​​​​Past investment: 1999-2006

​​​​The issue

Arts and cultural organizations often lack access to the most promising practices and models used by successful institutions in building participation in their programs and offerings. As a result, they can spend scarce human and financial resources on programs that don't work well. An understanding of what prompts participation and an examination of proven strategies and practices could help arts groups diversify, broaden and deepen relationships with their communities.

​​​​The response

The Wallace Foundation's Leadership and Excellence in Arts Participation (LEAP) program built on the foundation’s experience in identifying and supporting exemplary arts and cultural institutions that put people at the center of their work. In committing equally to the quality of the art and to audience needs and interests, LEAP grantees worked to have visitors become more fully engaged in the institutions' programs and work.

​​​​The strategies

Wallace provided multi-year grants to arts and cultural groups that best exemplified how to build participation in their communities and that, as a result, provided knowledge and leadership for others. The organizations encouraged cultural participation by expanding public programs, conducting marketing efforts and outreach activities and by sharing knowledge to encourage peer institutions to embrace people-centered work.

​​​​The accomplishments

The Wallace Foundation invested nearly $44 million in direct grants to 60 organizations in different regions of the country. As a result, museums, performing arts organizations, literary groups and community arts centers developed and tested a range of strategies to bring the arts to more people, pioneering changes in everything from programming to ticket pricing and methods of engaging young people:

Arena Stage in Washington, D.C. refined its ticket research to restructure prices, and, in a move similar to how airlines vary prices to attract different groups of travelers, it decided to adjust ticket prices to attract varying theater-goers. The result was that Arena increased ticket income by more than $750,000 during the 2000/2001 season, allowing it to reduce prices for seniors.
In Minneapolis, Walker Art Center's Teen Arts Council, which was refined during the LEAP initiative, selected, organized and promoted programs, thereby influencing museum areas ranging from visual and performing arts to film and new media. This body was so useful to the museum that when galleries were closed for a major renovation and the museum wanted to continue offering arts experiences, the Teen Council worked with nine Minnesota artists to create interactive installations in Walker's Sculpture Garden.
Because most of its events were free and open to the public, Cornerstone Theater in Los Angeles operated under severe cash flow constraints. With $150,000 of a 1999 Wallace grant, the group was able to create its first cash reserve. The theater went on to expand the reserve to more than $270,000 and amass an endowment fund of more than $675,000, a significant accomplishment for a community-minded theater with an annual operating budget of just over $1.5 million.

While it is difficult to say which of their participation-building strategies worked best, grantees succeeded in widening participation in their cultural endeavors. Overall, their audiences grew larger, in many cases outpacing audience gains for theaters and museums nationally.

​​​​Publications

The following Wallace publications describe some of the innovations in participation-building strategies developed by LEAP grantees:

Redefining the Asia Society: Working in partnership with local and grassroots organizations, this New York City-based institution provided artistic, cultural and political events as a way to bring diverse communities together.
AS220: The Art Community in Providence Where All Are Welcome: AS220 emerged as an egalitarian enterprise where art, music, food and community building could go hand in hand.
Pittsburgh Ballet Theater: New Work, New Audiences, New Expectations: Pittsburgh Ballet Theater's innovative production, Indigo in Motion, attracted new audiences with a blend of Pittsburgh's jazz heritage and classical ballet.
The Loft Literary Center: Developing Audiences for Literature: The Loft, in Minneapolis, offered creative writing, spoken word events, residencies, music, book clubs, screenwriting, mentoring, readings and more to develop and sustain audiences for literature.
Going Toward the Light: Philadelphia's Village of Arts and Humanities provided a unique blend of neighborhood development, creative arts, festivals and more to help rebuild a North Philadelphia community.
A Place of Their Own: Teens Make Programs Come Alive at the Walker Art Center: Through an outreach program that could serve as a model for America's cultural institutions, Walker Art Center provided Minneapolis-area teens with creative opportunities.
Bringing Back Life to the Lady: Curators, staff and leaders at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston sought to meet the unique challenge of keeping new life flowing through a world-renowned, historic collection that could never be altered.
From Bethlehem Steelworkers to LA's Finest, Involving the Community Takes a Dramatic Turn:  Using original works and contemporary adaptations of classics, the Los Angeles-based Cornerstone Theater Company reached and engaged non-traditional theater audiences around the nation.
"Kickin' It with the Old Masters" at the Baltimore Museum of Art: A year-long, multi-layered project transformed a venerable museum's traditional way of presenting exhibitions.
The Cleveland Museum Of Art: Mummies, Knights and a Cleveland Indian: Enlisting former Cleveland Indians Manager Mike Hargrove to host a video tour of its permanent collection was only one of a number of ways that the Cleveland Museum of Art sought to bring in new audiences.
Dance That Matters: Liz Lerman Dance Exchange: Choreographer Lerman's remarkable Dance Exchange brought new vision to towns and cities across America, through participatory events that moved all kinds of people—from shipyard workers to museum tour guides—to dance.

 Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation (CPCP)

The following describes a concluded Wallace program.

Past Investment: 1997-2002

The issue

Why don’t people participate in arts and culture? Shorthand responses include: They can’t, they won’t, nobody asked them to, or there is no place to do so. More specifically, participants must have sufficient motivation, time, money and skill. There are also community factors that influence how they connect to and become engaged in arts and cultural activities, as well as the range and type of arts and cultural opportunities available. Giving the average person more opportunities to experience the benefits of arts and culture requires institutions, supporters and funders to change their approach. Nationwide, community foundations contribute widely to the arts and could be enlisted to strengthening local participation in the arts and culture.

The response

The Wallace Foundation launched the Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation (CPCP) initiative to encourage community foundations to expand audience-building programs and provide direct support for local cultural organizations and artists. CPCP funds were distributed in two steps: Wallace first made nearly $9.5 million in grants to 10 community foundations, which in turn made grants to local nonprofits. The community foundations funded 38 distinct partnerships between cultural organizations as part of the CPCP initiative. The Wallace Foundation also commissioned the Urban Institute to evaluate CPCP.

The strategies

CPCP participants engaged in varied and overlapping types of partnerships. Small organizations benefited from the greater administrative and financial resources of larger partners, and large organizations benefited from their smaller partners’ connections to a desired target audience (in some cases, a specific ethnic group) and greater ability to work at the community level. Partnerships between organizations focused on different cultural forms and themes helped them expand and extend their programming. In several cases, the partnership was based on the ability of one partner to provide performance space.

The accomplishments

Partnerships between community foundations and local nonprofits in the CPCP initiative helped strengthen cultural participation in multiple ways and for multiple constituencies. Partnerships:

Expanded and strengthened artistic programming and services;
Engaged new audiences;
Expanded and strengthened the participation of artists;
Engaged donors with cultural organizations; and
Expanded organizational relationships that facilitated future participation-building activities.

Most of the partnerships in this initiative would not have existed without a grant, and most, including those intended to be long-term, did not last beyond the grant period.

Publications

Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation: Concepts, Prospects, and Challenges (1999) examines the first year of the CPCP initiative, finding that community foundations can work to strengthen arts and culture in their areas, but they also face notable challenges, including obstacles in creating and sustaining partnerships.
Reggae to Rachmaninoff: How and Why People Participate in Arts and Culture (2002) finds that the nation is experiencing higher levels of arts participation than many previously thought and suggests methods for reaching new audiences.
Arts and Culture: Community Connections (2002) is a brief offering suggestions on using community links as a means of building audiences.
Participation in Arts and Culture: The Importance of Community Venues (2003) is a second brief, showing that more people participate in arts and cultural events in nontraditional venues than in conventional arts venues.
Cultural Collaborations: Building Partnerships for Arts Participation (2003) examines the advantages of collaboration to each partner, the chances for sustainable results and the pitfalls.

 Community Arts Partnerships (CAP)

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program

​​​​Past Investment: 1998-2003

​​​​The issue

A strategic opportunity existed for The Wallace Foundation to bolster the work of leading professional arts schools interested in developing strong arts education programs for community youth while also helping the next generation of artists develop skills in engaging audiences.

​​​​The response

The Community Arts Partnerships (CAP) program was designed to increase young people's participation in the arts. The Wallace Foundation supported six partnerships between leading performing and fine-arts colleges and community-based organizations to provide high-quality arts education to young people in urban areas and to help the art students who were instructors and mentors of young people develop teaching skills. A previous grant recipient, CalArts' Community Arts Partnership program, pioneered this work and drew Wallace's attention to other exemplars across the country. Among the goals of the program were to expand young people’s access to high-quality programs and increase the number, quality and diversity of arts programs that community organizations provide for youth.

​​​​The strategies

Participating colleges began with one-year planning grants in 1998. Columbia College of Chicago received an additional grant over two years to develop a series of conferences and publications and an Institute for Community Arts Partnerships as a resource for all participants. In 1999, four-year grants of up to $600,000 each were awarded to seven colleges around the country, including Columbia.

​​​​The accomplishments

The foundation invested a total of $5 million in the program, providing high-quality arts training to hundreds of young people. These programs that linked professional arts training to community-based organizations and inner city youth became institutionalized in every CAP site, while the CAP Institute promoted knowledge-sharing and best practices among all the participating schools and the broader field. CAP schools represented an important model for art training institutions nationally. They also helped the next generation of artists—college students who served as instructors and mentors to young people—develop skills in teaching and in engaging audiences.

 Arts Partners Program

The following, written in 2011, describes a concluded Wallace program.

​​​​Past Investment: 1991-2003

​​​​The issue

Many performing arts presenters, even those with international reputations, seek creative methods for developing well-informed, committed audiences for the performing arts and engaging their own communities.

​​​​The response

From 1991 through 2003, The Wallace Foundation contributed $14 million to the Arts Partners Program, administered by the Association of Performing Arts Presenters of Washington, D.C., to build audiences for the performing arts through collaborations with artists and community organizations.

​​​​The strategies

Wallace made planning and project grants totaling more than $10 million to performing arts presenters for long-term artist residencies in dance, music, theater and multidisciplinary work. Grants supported more than 100 artist residencies with presenters in almost as many communities. In addition to grants for audience building, the program supported professional training seminars and the creation and distribution of publications, including Audience Development: A Planning Toolbox for Partners, Learning Audiences and For the Record.

​​​​The accomplishments

Overall, this program made substantive changes in the audience building and community engagement skills of the arts presenting field and created meaningful and lasting partnerships between presenters and community organizations nationwide. Professional presenting organizations worked with performing artists and community groups supporting projects to build audiences, involving extended residencies by performing arts ensembles and encouraging interaction among presenters, artists and audiences. In December 1998, the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation announced a three-year, $3 million grant to the Arts Partners Program, a significant endorsement of its value.