This peer-reviewed 2012 study looks at principals trained by the NYC Leadership Academy’s Aspiring Principal Program (APP) from angles including their backgrounds, schools they led, turnover rates and effects on student achievement. It finds that a greater percentage of APP graduates than novice principals as a whole became principals of higher-need, lower-performing schools. The study also concludes that students of the early APP principals did about as well in English Language Arts as students of other novice principals, but lagged behind in math. (The peer-reviewed study was proceeded by a 2009 report and a 2011 follow-up.)